Introduction of smart homes
In the Introduction of smart homes(Bms) , Smart homes are based on the concept of integrating intelligent technologies into residential spaces aiming to increase the quality of life. Emergence of this concept is a promising solution for major concerns towards building sector namely, energy consumption and environmental impacts.
Besides, smart homes (smart building) offer constant monitoring and controlling for the patients. Smart homes can detect the residents’ behaviors and activities through sensors and actuators installed throughout the unit. This study provides an overview of smart homes while addressing their essential aspects. This study comprehensively defines smart homes. It is expressed that, the concept of smart homes is intertwined with application of various intelligent technologies. Therefore, application of these intelligent technologies/devices/sensors is comprehensively articulated. This chapter also investigates the benefits and challenges of the implementing smart homes. Eventually.
This chapter aims to discuss about the prospects of smart homes towards formation of smarter urban futures. Due to the continuous usage of fossil fuels, tackling the environmental threats, related to climate change, global warming and environmental pollution, has become crucial. This has pushed the energy-oriented intelligent features and environmental sustainable dimension to become a core issue in defining future smart homes. Involvement of automation and intelligence is yet an inherent part of smart homes.
The most important advantage of a smart home (smart building) is energy savings.
Three decades ago, the so-called smart homes were only a conceptual theory for representation of forthcoming residential buildings. However, today, smart homes are gradually becoming inherent constituents of current policies for smart cities. Urbanized areas are expected to be influenced by advanced intelligent technologies in order to promote smart growth, green development, and healthy environments.
In recent years, smart homes have become increasingly popular due to their potentials for deploying design initiatives and emerging technologies towards maximized occupants’ comfort. Inclusion of ICT, automated technologies and embedded intelligence into building design, construction and management is often considered the key towards development of smart homes. The intelligence embedded into IBs enables them to be responsive to users’ needs, environment and society. This is also effective in minimizing negative environmental impacts and wastage of natural resources.
The purpose of smart home (Bms)
Smart homes target to reduce operational costs through efficient energy management.
Incorporation of intelligence in smart homes relies on deploying embedded advanced sensors. These lead to identification and collection of physical information while transferring the captured information to control systems.
Meanwhile, smart homes have recently been fully integrated with sensor networks for enhancement of the indoor air quality (IAQ). Wireless sensors and networks are nowadays considered primarily related to the progress of Radio Sensitivity, Ultra-low Power Consumption, Micro electromechanical Systems (MEMS) Sensors and Energy Harvesting. Through advancement of Self-functional Advanced Sensors, smart homes can also benefit from self-adjustability via learning from the environment and user behavioral patterns.
It is inferred that; smart homes play a fundamental role in shaping the future cities based on their explored potentials and benefits. Prominent potential of smart homes in automation and digitalization of living environments and the integrated technological facilities is widely acknowledged. Other key benefits of smart homes in future urbanization include enhanced security and comfort, optimized energy performance, reduced environmental impacts, investment returns and reduced level of operational expenses, improved networking potentials, productivity and users’ well-being.
Recently, smart homes are perceived as an innovative but resourceful dream for future communities. However, emerging researches confirm the gradual penetration of this concept into contemporary life. Although existence of smart homes/smart grids/smart meters dates back to many years ago, it has recently attracted substantial attention. Policies encouraging/mandating users to reduce building energy consumption and concern climate change beside the increasing advancements in IT/ICT are the driving forces for respective developments.
Contemporarily, most appliances used in traditional homes are operated both locally and manually. This is generally performed by pressing a button. Therefore, building energy management and control in such spaces has been limited as the result of employing such devices. Alternatively, smart homes allow for electronic control/management of intelligent appliances such as water heaters, air conditioners, etc. This represents the convergence of energy efficient appliances and real- time access to energy utilization data provided by a network of sensors and computers (ITU, 2010). Smart homes incorporate several technological platforms offering remote/central controlled functionalities and services focusing on occupants needs .The primary objective of a smart home is to provide building automation, facilitate energy management and reduce environmental emissions .Smart homes equipped with intelligent technologies for automation purposes are gradually becoming a common paradigm in the building sector. This chapter provides a systematic review of the existing literature on smart homes.
Smart home definitions (smart building)
Introduction of smart homes – Researchers have provided several definitions for smart homes. Harper defined smart home as “the home which is a well-designed structure with sufficient access to assets, communication, controls, data, and information technologies for enhancing the occupants’ quality of life through comfort, convenience, reduced costs, and increased connectivity”. This definition covered the advantages that are likely to be appreciated as the result of utilizing smart homes. However, housing typologies are also an important criteria to properly define this concept.
Chan et al. and Reinisch et al. defined smart home as “a residence equipped with a communications network, linking sensors and domestic devices and appliances that can be remotely monitored, accessed or controlled, and which provides services that respond to the needs of its inhabitants”. In this definition, sensors are expressed as the devices used to detect the location of users and objects for data collection purposes e.g. temperature, energy consumption, etc. Ozkan NB, et al. stated the term smart home is an inclusive concept as, in principle, it refers to any type of residence e.g. a standalone house, an apartment, or a unit in a social housing complex.
In this regard, Demiris, et al. argued that, smart building is “a residence building equipped with technology that facilitates monitoring of residents or promotes independence and increases residents’ quality of life”. This definition highlighted the use of intelligent technologies in residential units to monitor the occupants’ behaviors for enhancing their quality of life.
Introduction of smart homes – In another definition, Scott elucidated that , a smart home is Page 6 of 41 different than a house which has been merely equipped with standalone highly advanced technologic features such as smart meters or smart appliances. He supposed that, through the application of a connected network of devices and sensors, smart homes would allow consumers to control building energy consumption more efficiently. This is done while simultaneously increasing the occupants’ level of comfort for a variety of household activities.
These activities include but are not limited to space heating (via thermostat settings automatically adjusting to actual weather temperatures), water heating (via detecting household behavior patterns and providing hot water at required temperatures at the right amount at the right time) and security (via sensors detecting open windows in an unoccupied property and alerting the householder).
Introduction of smart homes – According to ITU (International Telecommunication Union- United Nation’s specialized agency for IT/ICT), smart homes (make smart home) are able to offer various services. These include but are not limited to the granular control of smart appliances (e.g. heaters, air conditioners, washers, etc.), the ability to remotely manage electrical devices, display of consumption data and associated costs, as well as communication between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and their charging station and on-site micro-generators (e.g. rooftop solar panels).
Ghadi, et al. defined a smart building as a building capable of achieving significant energy savings by utilizing advanced control systems, technologies, materials, appliances, electrical systems, plumbing, HVAC system, etc. (Introduction of smart homes)
In conclusion, smart homes are residential units modernized through a communicating network of sensors, domestic devices and appliances enabling occupants to control the functions of houses through sophisticated monitoring/controlling systems. Implementation of smart homes result in enhanced quality of life, minimized building energy consumption, reduced cost of energy and improved security.
Conceptualization of Smart Homes (make smart home)
Introduction of smart homes – Smart homes (Bms) refer to those equipped with sensors to monitor various aspects such as the environment and the occupants’ behaviors in order to provide proactive services aiming to improve the residents’ experience. This concept was originally developed targeting to improve the users’ level of comfort and sense of security besides improving the building’s energy efficiency. Kroner highlighted the importance of meeting ‘all the needs of users’ as the result of employing modernized sensor embedded houses.
Over the past decades, these intelligent technologies were increasingly utilized among the elderlies and the handicapped people. This increasing interest is based on the ability of smart homes to support the elderlies/disabled to maintain living independently.
One of the key features of smart homes is utilization of embedded sensors in order to monitor the daily activities of residents. However, many researchers argued that, the main concept of smart homes is not only about integrating emerging technologies to improve the level of convenience.
Smart homes need to be responsive to the ‘local characteristics of the region encompassing the social-cultural and environmental values’. Nowadays, there is a growing concern towards the environmental impacts of the construction industry. Buildings are responsible for producing one-third of global GHG emissions.
Thus, implementation of smart homes is a promising solution to mitigate the environmental concerns of building sector. a building cannot be announced as an intelligent building merely by applying intelligent modes of technology. “Over the past 20 years many different buildings have been labeled as ‘intelligent’. However, the application of intelligence in buildings has yet to deliver its true potential”.